Fuels Laboratory Services

Short Prox (Short Proximate Analysis):
Determination of moisture, ash, Btu and sulfur content of a representative sample  
Equipment: Leco TGA 701, SC432 and AC500   
Standards: ASTM D2013, D5142, D5865 and D4239  

Prox (Proximate Analysis): 
Determination of moisture, ash, Btu, sulfur, volatile matter and fixed carbon.
Equipment: Leco TGA 701, SC432 and AC500   
Standards: ASTM D2013, D7582, D5865 and D4239


Ultimate Analysis:
Determination of total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in the material, as found in the gaseous products of its complete combustion.
Determination of ash in the material as a whole, and the calculation of oxygen by difference
Equipment: Leco TrueSpec CHN, TGA701 and SC432  
Standards: ASTM D2013, D5373, D7582, D3176 and D4239  

Heating Value (BTUs)
Gross calorific value of a fuel sample is determined. With the use of a Calorimeter, fuel potential BTU output is determined. BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of liquid water at one atmosphere pressure one oF at a stated temperature.
Equipment: Leco AC500  
Standards: ASTM D2013 and D5865  


Total Moisture
Total moisture is the summation of residual moisture and air dry loss moisture. Residual moisture is obtained using the Thermogravimetric Analyzer.
Equipment: Leco TGA 701  
Standards: ASTM D2013, D3302 and D7582
 
Sulfur
Sulfur content of coal and coke is determined by high-temperature tube furnace combustion.
Equipment: Leco SC432   
Standards: ASTM D2013 and D4239 

Oxygen
Currently there is no direct ASTM method of determining oxygen content in coal.
In an ultimate analysis, it is calculated by subtracting the sum of the as-determined percentages of C, H, N, S and ash from 100%.  
Equipment: Leco TrueSpec CHN, TGA701 and SC432   
  Standards: ASTM D2013, D5373, D7582, D3176 and D4239

Mercury
The total mercury content in a representative sample is determined by direct combustion analysis
Equipment:Leco AMA254 
Standards:ASTM D2013 and D6722 
 
 
4 Pt Ash Fusion Temperatures
Determines the fusibility of coal and coke ash residue. A 4-point ash fusion temperature (initial deformation, softening, hemispherical and fluid temperatures) is obtained using the LECO AF700 instrument.     Equipment: Leco AF700 
Standards: ASTM D2013 and D1857  
 

SO2 Capture
Limestone used to capture SO2 is very crucial to the emission control of the boiler.
The test method allows us to test the sulfur adsorption capacity index of the limestone or other chemicals to ensure it meets plant requirements. 
Equipment: TA Instruments TGA Q50
Standards: Internal Lab Standards



ASPEX SIRIUS SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a convergent beam of high-energy electrons to generate different signals from the surface of the sample. An accelerated electron beam is decelerated when it interacts with the solid sample. Several signals including secondary electrons (SE), backscattered electrons (BSE) and X-rays (photons) are produced. X-rays are used for elemental analysis.

These X-rays are used for elemental analysis.


Standards and CRMs
All instruments are calibrated with known standards and certified reference materials (CRMs) before running the actual samples.